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Aantekeningen bij "Creating public value" van Mark H. Moore

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Mark H. Moore - Creating public value. Strategic management in government, 1995

17 "[The current ] doctrine produces a characteristic mindset among public sector managers: the mindset of administrators of bureaucrats rather than of entrepreneurs, leaders or executives. Their orientation is downward, toward the reliable control of organizational operations rather than either outward, toward the achievement of valuable results, or upward, toward renegotiated policy mandates."

20 "Managers are [to be] seen as explorers who, with others, seek to discover, define, and produce public value. Instead of simply devising the means for achieving mandated purposes, they become important agents in helping to discover and define what would be valuable to do. Instead of being responsible only for guaranteeing continuity, they become important innovators in changing what public organizations do and how they do it. In short, public managers become strategists rather than technicians."

22 "A useful, conditional conception of public value can be envisioned by public managers if they integrate: (1) substanstive judgments of what would be valuable and effective; (2) a diagnosis of political expectations: and (3) hard-headed calculations of what is operationally feasible. In short, in envisioning public value, managers must find a way to integratie politics, substance, and administration."

22 "A strategic triangle can help us conceptualize this basic argument. This image focuses managerial attention on the three key questions managers must answer in testing the adequacy of their vision of organizational purpose: whether the purpose is publicly valuable, whether it will be politically and legally supported, and whether it is administratively and operationally feasible."

28 "The aim of managerial work in the public sector is to create public value just as the aim of managerial work in the private sector is to create private value."

29 "It is not enough to say that public managers create results that are valued; they must be able to show that the results obtained are worth the cost of private consumption and unrestrained liberty forgone in producing the desirable results. Only then can we be sure that some public value has been created."

31 "So, we should evaluate the efforts of public sector managers not in the economic marketplace of individual consumers but in the political marketplace of citizens and the collective decisions of representative democratic institutions."

39/41 De noodzaak van een verhaal over de publieke waarde van een organisatie. Zo'n verhaal moet niet alleen direct belanghebbenden aanspreken, maar ook de gemeenschap in z'n geheel. En het moet niet alleen worden gezien als waardevol maar ook als eerlijk en gerechtvaardigd.

48 Een overheidsorganisatie moet altijd zowel efficiënt als eerlijk zijn: "Once public authority is engaged, issues of fairness are always present. And public authority is always engaged when tax dollars are being spent."

52 Hoe te komen tot publieke waarde?
1. Publieke waarde komt voort uit de behoeften en waardering van individuele burgers;
2. Deze behoeften, of die nu worden bediend via dienstverlening (individueel) of beleid (maatschappelijk), krijgen gestalte via een democratisch proces;
3. Overheidsorganisaties kunnen waarde creëren door aan deze behoefte te voldoen, via producten en diensten, maar ook in de vorm van instituties (goodwill);
4. Daarbij moeten overheidsorganisaties zowel efficiënt als rechtvaardig zijn en zowel zuinig zijn met de inzet van financiële als van machtsmiddelen;
5. Burgers en hun vertegenwoordigers "kopen" van overheden een (onderbouwd) verhaal in de vorm van beleid (nl. om een maatschappelijke opgave op te pakken);
6. Tijden veranderen en zo ook de omgeving en daarmee de opdracht van overheidsorganisaties.

57 "If the managers cannot account for the value of these efforts with both a story and demonstrated accomplishments, then the legitimacy of their enterprise is undermined and, with that, their capacity to lead."

71 "An organizational strategy is a concept that simultaneously: (1) declares the overall mission or purpose of an organization (cast in terms of important public values); (2) offers an account of the sources of support and legitimacy that will be tapped to sustain society's commitment to the enterprise; and (3) explains how the enterprise will have to be organized and operated to achieve the declared objectives."

71 "In developing a strategy for a public sector organization, a manager must bring these elements into coherent alignment by meeting three broad tests. First, the strategy must be substantively valuable in the sense that the organization produces things of value to overseers, clients, and beneficiaries at low cost in terms of money and authority.
Second, it must be legitimate and politically sustainable. That is, the enterprise must be able to continually attract both authority and money from the political authorizing environment to which it is ultimately accountable.
Third, it must be operationally and administratively feasible in that the authorized, valuable activities can actually be accomplished by the existing organization with help from others who can be induced to contribute to the organizations's goal."

75 "The strategic triangle rests on the assumption that public managers should define an organization's overall purpose and mission." (in contrast to policymakers)

90 "First, the statements of purpose help managers stay focused on the point of their efforts: manage their organizations for performance and value.(...)
Second, the statements of purpose highlight the more particular pieces of managerial work that are stategically most important to achieve: sources of political support, key public values and investments and innovations in operational capabilities. (...)
Third, the articulation of broad purposes often both stimulates and guides the contributions that others can and must make to the enterprise if the organization is to succeed."

91 "One cannot analyze the political environment for supporters or opponents until one has decided what substantive purposes one advocates."

290 Zes belangrijke conclusies over de rol van publieke managers om strategische veranderingen te bewerkstelligen in hun organisatie:
1. Een succesvolle implementatie van een organisatiestrategie vraagt om zowel management- (intern gericht) als leiderschapskwaliteiten (extern gericht);
2. Een publieke manager moet precies weten hoeveel druk en urgentie hun organisatie aan kan en nodig heeft om tot verandering te komen;
3. De nadruk ligt niet op structuur- of systemische verandering, maar op ingrepen die het doel dichterbij brengen. Het systeem wordt daar op aangepast;
4. Succesvolle managers werken niet volgens een vastomlijnd plan maar incrementeel richting het doel, gebruik makend van kansen die zich voordoen;
5. Daarbij nemen ze graag ideeën en steun aan van anderen, mits die initiatieven bijdragen aan het doel waar de manager op koerst;
6. Deze publieke managers hebben een goed gevoel voor het tempo van de verandering, om momentum te houden maar niet te snel te gaan.

291 "Big changes in administrative systems seem to follow rather than lead the process of persuading the organizations' employees to think and operate in a new way. Administrative shifts reinforce rather than carry the message of change. They facilitate rather than dictate the organizations' efforts to change."

293 "[Public managers] calculate what to do: how to define their purposes, engage their political overseers and coproducers, and guide their organizations' operations. Then, most remarkably of all, they go ahead and do what their calculations suggest they should."

293 "My purpose in this book is precisely to encourage imagination, purposefulness, enterprise, and calculation among public executies."

295 "Political institutions are often vulnerable to the corruption of short-term particular interests and may have to be resisted by conscientious officials who take the wide and long view of the public interest."

299 "[Public executives] are explorers commissioned by society to search for public value."

301 "Strategy as enhanced accountability"

304 "Standing pat in changing circumstances is often far more hazardous to managers, to organizations, and to the public than groping in a direction that seems suited to the new politically expressed values or the new technical or administrative possibilities."

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